Dr. Farr Nezhat, MD, FACOG, FACS, is renowned for managing severe, multi-organ endometriosis and treats a high volume of endometriosis patients. He pioneered minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic procedures used for treating endometriosis and gynecological cancers. He demonstrated safety and efficacy of these techniques, and his work resulted in several groundbreaking peer-reviewed publications. He researches, publishes and teaches in the areas of pathophysiology of ovarian cancer, malignant transformation of endometriosis, and application of laparoscopy and robotics in gynecological malignancy, most specifically in early and advanced ovarian cancer. Dr. Nezhat’s clinical practice is a surgical referral center welcoming women from across the United States and abroad for consultations in the New York, NY, metropolitan area, with offices in downtown Manhattan and Valley Stream, Long Island.
Similar to the way gynecological cancer patients are managed, Dr. Nezhat believes every endometriosis patient must be followed by a specialist in endometriosis, preferably a minimally invasive surgeon, for possible endometriosis recurrence and possible malignant transformation of endometriosis.
However, endometriosis does not cause catabolic or metabolic disturbances.
Epidemiological, histological, and molecular studies suggest a link between endometriosis and certain ovarian cancers, particularly the histological subgroups: endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
There is now an unprecedented opportunity to develop a comprehensive plan for women with endometriosis for early detection and prevention of specific types of ovarian cancers.
Once women with endometriosis are identified, either surgically documented or by self‐reported symptoms, they should be managed as follows:
The transformation of ovarian and non-ovarian endometriosis to certain histological type malignancies is well established and has perplexed physicians for a long time. Sampson first suggested the malignant transformation of endometriosis in 1925 (1,2,3,6). Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between endometriosis and ovarian low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear-cell ovarian, and extra-ovarian cancers.
In a study reported in Lancet Oncology, a team of researchers from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) performed a pooled analysis of 13 case-control studies and confirmed that women with self-reported history of endometriosis have a significantly increased risk of clear cell carcinoma (odds ratio 3.05) and endometrioid ovarian cancer (odds ratio 2.04) (6). In addition the authors show, for the first time, that endometriosis is associated with ovarian low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, doubling its risk in women with endometriosis (6). However, there was no association between endometriosis and high-grade serous carcinomas or other subtypes of ovarian cancer in the study.
Deligdisch and Nezhat et al. reported a series of 76 cases of stage I ovarian carcinomas and documented that non-serous carcinomas (54/76) were presented due to symptoms typically associated with endometriosis, including pelvic pain or vaginal bleeding associated with hyperestrogenism and endometrial pathology (4). Interestingly they also found that most high-grade serous carcinomas were found during evaluation of women with a history of breast cancer, or in women with BRCA mutation undergoing prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy.
These and similar observations support the emerging dual model of epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis. According to this model, Type I ovarian carcinomas (low-grade serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinoma) are often associated with endometriosis. Type 2 carcinomas (high-grade serous) associated with TP53 mutations that are more aggressive and their origin is now thought to be fimbriated ends of fallopian tubal epithelium (5).
Taken together these findings will have considerable clinical implications and may affect the ways we think about strategies for ovarian cancer screening and prevention. In particular, the emerging knowledge of the link between ovarian cancer and endometriosis gives us an unprecedented opportunity to develop comprehensive screening plans to aid in the early detection and prevention of specific types of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis.
While it is well known that most women with endometriosis do not develop ovarian cancer, women and their physicians should always discuss new findings, carefully document and discuss any new symptoms, and formulate plans for regular evaluation and treatment.